Paper Presented by:

Prof. Edgar Lopategui
Interamerican University of Puerto Rico
Metro Campus
Division of Education
Physical Education Department


        A growing number of colleges and universities in Puerto Rico, the United States of America, and other parts of the world are using the computer technology to strengthen their classroom teaching-learning process. Various higher educational institutions have developed high-technological electronic multimedia classrooms, and computer-related faculty training programs. Potential future trends are clear. Instructional computing is widely used for classroom multimedia digital media presentations and for interactive computer-based training (CBT). More and more educators had changed their approach toward the computer-based instruction (CBI), particularly the authoring of computerized teaching materials.
        The construction of CBI programs for higher education can be oriented toward four basic types of approaches: 1) drill and practice applications, 2) instructional tutorial programs, 3) simulation applications, and 4) educational games. Most educators empower these possible areas for the development of CBI applications with multimedia elements.
        Multimedia represents the most recent technical development that had been incorporated as an aid to the educational process and in the business world. The term multimedia refers to an organized multisensory delivery and access of information by a variety of display media, namely, text, computer graphics (charts and graphs), static images, moving images (video), animation, and audio sound (music, voice), which are integrated into an authoring presentation system manipulated by a microcomputer and its user. Multimedia uses different computer peripherals (computer monitor and/or projecting device, CD-ROM player, video disk player, VCR tape deck, scanners, audio digitizer, and other devices) to deliver the ideas and information of a computer-generated presentation graphics or interactive multimedia application. A multimedia delivery system represents a combination of hardware and software that incorporates multiple media resources (text, graphics, animation, video, and music/voice) within a personal computer (PC) system. Multimedia is known to be interactive, which means that the student controls and manage non-sequentially the direction of the information provided by the CBI multimedia program. That is, there is a back-and-forth interaction between the participant and the multimedia software. Special interactive tools are incorporated into the multimedia CBI applications, namely, hypertext and hypermedia. Hypertext is a metaphor used in interactive CBI applications to create non-sequential net-like dynamic links of hot spots textual materials (e.g., words, phrases, and chunks of information) for easy search and access of an interactive computer-based information database. For example, clicking on highlighted words or phrases would randomly access other references (e.g., a definition of a concept), objects/images, or audio/video sequences or events. Therefore, hypertext provides a powerful navigational tool that enables the user to search and display automatically linked text-based information (the source end of the link) from a rich variety of cross-references (the destination of the link). Hypermedia represents the non-textual multimedia interaction of cross-connected pieces information (e.g., menu buttons) that allows the viewer to begin anywhere, to move around within the application, and to search, scan, browse, and retrieve interconnected modules (the basic unit of a CBI application) and related multimedia elements, such as, text, video clips, animation files, sound, and graphics. Therefore, hypermedia provides to the students a non-linear navigation that enables the access of information according to their particular interests. Hypermedia and interactive multimedia are often used interchangeably.
        The use of interactive multimedia delivery systems at the higher education setting greatly enhances the teaching-learning process. It is well known from the educational studies that we remember about 20% of what we hear, 40% of what we see and hear, and about 75% of what we see, hear and do. In addition, CBI programs provides an 10 to 20% of learning improvement as compared to conventional teaching classes (Molnar, 1990, cited in Oblinger, 1992, p. 6). Multimedia CBI programs provides to the student with a variety of media elements from which the student can actively select for an wide range of interactive experience that enhances the learning processs. This multimedia learning process allows the student a natural self-paced access of the information, which leads to a better understanding and to discover on their own. Interactive multimedia CBI applications makes possible the integration of media into interactive programs with the potential to expand the use of visualization at different professional disciplines, such as education, health science, natural science, and other academic areas. Hypermedia-based CBI applications supplies to the student an essential tool for an quick access of information and media displays that will facilitate the student's research skills, stimulates problem-solving situations, improve their abilities to acquire depth of knowledge, and encourage them to create their own interpretation from personal experiences. A meta-analysis study performed by Cohen & Decanay (1992) found that CBI programs can also improve the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process in health professions education.
        Computer delivered courses in the form of online multimedia presentations of the lectures increases the attention and interest of the students by providing specific and near-real life examples multimedia elements. Higher education faculty members are using multimedia presentation graphics systems to improve their teaching and conference presentations, as well as in their proposals for research grants.


        Interactive multimedia encourages self-expresion and discovery by means of its interactive non-linear access of information. Students will be more motivated to learn, since an multimedia lesson (in the form of a digital presentation lecture and/or interactive multimedia computer instruction) can provide near-reality information through its variety of available media elements (text, sound, animation, and video). The students may learn by using their multiple senses (particularly sight, and hearing), which provides new and enriched experiences. The learning process will be an active one, leaving the students to learn by their own. The lecture and/or interactive/individualized lesson will provide a stimulating environment that can improve the learning proccess by enhancing understanding and retention of the subject matter (Galbreath, 1994; Oblinger, 1992).
    A summary of the pedagogical and cost-effectve benefits of interactive multimedia applications and lecture presentations at the higher educational institutions are listed below (Jensen, 1991, cited in Oblinger, 1992, pp. 9-10; Lamb, 1992; Miller, 1990, cited in Lamb, 1992, p. 37):

        1. The self-paced and discovery features of interactive multimedia eventually will result in
            mastery and increased retention of the information. The use of multisensory channels offers
            to the students different visual and auditory cues, so that each one can match his/her sensory
            preferences and needs. Consequently, learning can be enhanced as well as motivation for
            further interactive multimedia experience. The role of the professor will change from one as a
            dispenser of informations to a one as a facilitator for the educational process.

        2. The interactivity nature of multimedia CBI programs assures an active and constructive
            educational procces among the students, since the lecture presentation and or interactive
            software will be controlled by the students decisions and abilities. Therefore, the students will
            be more in control of their own learning.

        3. Well-developed multimedia CBI applications will allow students to concentrate on the
            concepts being taught, study particular issues (simulate problems), and encourage
            problem-solving circumstances.

        4. Real-life subjects matters can be incorporated in the multimedia lesson. Such feature
            provided by the multimedia lessons can supply to the student the capacity to access
            near-reality hazardous content matters without life-threatening risks.

        5. Reinforcement by means of feedback is possible during an interactive multimedia CBI
            lesson. This encourage motivation and provides for a better understanding of the

        6. The use of interactive multimedia among students reduce the time required for the learning
            process. Multimedia-based CBI applications will decrease the time needed by the students
            to master associated concepts.

        7. In terms of cost-effective advantages, interactive multimedia reduce the cost per student for
            the development of educational material.

        8. The delivery of instructional material are more consistent as compared with traditional lecture

        9. Interactive multimedia provides individualization and student privacy.

      10. The teaching-learning process can also be improved at the higher education level when the
            professor use online multimedia capable presentation graphics for their class lectures. These
            multimedia presentations can increase the students attention to the class lecture and clarify
            complex concepts. Moreover, class discussion and analytical thinking can be stimulated
            when the professor expose the students with special issues and hidden facts employing the
            interactive multimedia tools. The professor can use these tools to fulfill the instructional
            objectives of the class lessons.

      11. Higher educational teaching-learning process can be significantly enhanced due to the nature
            hypertext/hypermedia tools which can be incorporated in the multimedia CBI application or
            classroom presentation. For example, previous particular lecture notes/topics can be easily
            access, so that specific doubts and requested questions by the student can be clarified.
            Furthermore, information inserted a during a digital presentation lecture can be recalled in
            future presentations.

      12. The content discussed during the lectures can easily be made available at the university
            computer networks or stand-alone computer stations. Such valuable campus service makes
            possible afterward reviews of the class lectures and can clarify unanswered questions of the
            class subject. Likewise, students that had miss one or more presentation lectures can latter
            view the topic discussed during the computer-generated presentation. Similarly, remedial
            lessons and test can be scheduled for those students with poor learning skills.

      13. During the preparation of the multimedia materials, the professor will have to put more
            attention on the particular topic developing and to amplify his imaginative pedagogical skills
            for an effective delivery of the class presentation

      14. Interactive CBI can assure an equally access of high-quality education.

      15. Education and training cost will be significantly reduced.


        Authoring multimedia. All types of developed instructional lessons and/or presentations have authors. The authors are engaged in the process of composing multimedia elements, incorporating media displays (still and moving images, sound bytes, and plain text), cross-references, and other pieces of information into an integrated hypermedia-based multimedia application (Fisher, 1994). Stated in another form, authoring for multimedia CBI programs and classroom presentation refers to the process by which the developer use an authoring system to create educational programs or on-line presentation designed to serve as an teaching tool. An authoring system represents the software package used to integrate various interactive/multimedia documents into a single multimedia CBI application and/or presentation (Fisher, 1994, p. 269). Commercially available multimedia authoring softwares must be the first choice for the novice professor when planning for the development of interactive multimedia CBI programs. Within the Windows operating system environment, those professors with more experience and some knowlege in programming, it is recommended to combine his multimedia project using an Window-based programming language, such as C and C++ (Perry, 1994, p. 15). The majority of Windows itself is written in C. Therefore, an efective multimedia application would rather be written with C or C++. The interactive programs created with these languages will benefit in terms of speed and execution than those applications generated solely by authoring softwares (Perry, 1994 p. 15). Normally, the authoring of multimedia is a team approach, requiring several different people, each with separate skills.

        Suggested developmental CBI principles and steps. For any type of CBI multimedia application development process, the professor should follow specific design principles, so that the success of the final product can be assured. Cates (1992) had nicely developed fifteen basic principles. These principles are described below:

  1. The interactive CBI must couple with the present curricular emphases. It is of great importance that the potential CBI application meet the student's and curricular needs. The program must provide a relationship between the content of the curriculum and/or of the goals/objectives of the particular academic course.
  2. The interactive CBI must couple with the present pedagogical practice. The CBI application should provide to the professors adequate instructional lessons.
  3. The interactive CBI must couple with the present educational time limitations. Interactive multimedia CBI programs must allow the students to interact with the program within the normal restraints of the class schedules. In addition, the CBI application should provide an effective and easy launching and exit of the computerized lesson. This means that the student is able in any moment to stop the program, exit it, and later run it again without loosing track of his previous work.
  4. The interactive CBI should be able to meet the particular needs of the professors. The CBI program must provide easy-to-use commands and interface, so that the professors and students could perform effective non-sequential search of information or media elements according to their interests and special needs.
  5. Those interactive CBI programs that incorporate a database feature, must provide an easy access of it upon request of particular research material. The interactive CBI application should be designed with efficient search tools from a rich-content database. The student should be able to perform a database search by means of different methods. Additionally, the database developed by the professor for the CBI lesson should adequately embrase educational information that can satisfy the instructional goals and the research objectives. Another important design feature that must embody en effective database tool is the capacity to export computer files and to get printed copies of the information requested.
  6. The interactive CBI database must be expandable. The CBI database should contain an import tool. This will be able to provide a more individualized and personalized approach that should be able to enhance the educational process. The import capability of the databse assures a prolonged life for the use of the program, since the student could incorporate new material into the program's database. Such importable material should comprise all type of media elements (text, graphics, photos, and audio segments).
  7. The design of interactive multimedia CBI database should be capable to aid to the development of the research abilities that must possess the students. The CBI database should be furnished with easy-affluency of assorted-rich resource data and a simple hyperlink for the research process. In other words, the search mechanismfor specific topics from the database should be one that helps the user to inquiry the information through easy steps, so that the student can eventually learn the procees to access media elements from any database.
  8. The interactive CBI should be able to invite the students in an active reasoning-thinking process concerning their present knowlege and on-going learning of information. The professor developing the interactive CBI should have in mind todesign his application within an pedagogical framework oriented toward the development of the thinking abilities. The CBI applications must provide an active participation of the students, in order to inspire an original productive body of comprehension and knowlege from the interactive process and from their personal experiences. Therefore, in order to improve the teaching-learning process, the aplication must facilitate to the student an active learning environment by which he can develop creative/constructive understandings and knowledges of the subject studied.
  9. The intercative CBI design must provide an "user-friendly" educational setting. The CBI application should be constructed around the needs of an novice student that uses the program for the first time. The novice student must be able to follow the basic features and tools of the program without reading the mannual of such application. This can be accomplished in the following possible ways:
    • Incorporating to the application practical-easy to follow on-screen instructions and messages. Also, it should be included an easy to access help or guidance that provides specific instructions on how to use the items/objects present on the screen.
    • The interface design must be simple and consistent. The screen items/objects should be limited to those only essential. In must be avoided to much items/objects at the same time in the screen application. The buttons and icons must have some significance with the application. On-line help messages can be incorporated to the application to clarify the functions of the icon/images in the screen.
  10. If the interactive CBI design includes the use of videodisk, the developer must be sure to incorporate - in addition of full motion video - other types of media elements. These media components can be special graphics and still images (such as, photographs, maps, and other illustrations), and textual documents. An export capability will provide to the user the advantage of printing those documents he needs.
  11. The interactive CBI design should incorporate meaningful video clips that clarifies the retrieved information and compel an effective use of them within the application environment. The video clips must be well produced and appropriate to the interactive lesson. The professor developing the CBI application should be very careful to include well-made video segments that are significant and necessary to the interactive lessons and can serve as effective instructional tool.
  12. The interactive CBI application must use the appropriate/correct writting and grammar. The content matter within the application must be accurate and utilize the correct language. The developers need to be sure that their CBI applications follows the appropriate grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  13. The interactive nature of the CBI application should be developed in a significant manner. The instructions provided by the program should stimulate the students to be actively involved in the interactive process. The multimedia interaction must be meaningful for the students and should motivate them to explore/discover according to their particular interests and needs within the content of the subject matter under study. The students should be capable of employing the application's hypertext/hypermedia tools to interconnect toward special links that can encourage the student's thinking-reasoning mechanism during an decision-making process of particular meaningful problem-solving situations.
  14. The interactive CBI application must stress context facts. Those applications that follow this important principle will be able to eventually supply to the student with the comprehension of vital interrelated subjects as well as a better understanding of concepts related to other facts within the content of the application lesson.
  15. The interactive CBI application should provide valuable multimedia database-related print materials. All print materials should be easy to read and include a set of clear instructions regarding the use of the hardware and CBI application. Lesson plans with instructional goals, objectives, and rationales must be provided within the printing options of the CBI program. Other possible printing materials that could be included for the professors are the scope and sequence charts as related to the current textbooks.
        Poston (1993) had developed an easy to follow steps when creating interactive CBI applications. These steps consist of:
  1. Choosing a specific topic for the CBI lesson. This process requires to identify aninstructional problem and the needs of the end-users (audience, i.e., the students). The problem/topic must be narrowed.
  2. Choosing the tools required to develop the interactive multimedia CBI applications. Based on the technical expertise/knowlege and experience in the computer field by the professor, he must decide if the lesson will be developed by means of traditional programing languages (e.g., BASIC, Pascal), Window-based languages (C or C++), or by commercially available authoring softwares.
  3. Development of the instructional design by creating a map of the program's features. This process consist of first defining the objectives and goals of the audience. Next, the professor design a flowchart or "map" of the program's structure. Such architure should include the program branches, events input points, graphics and other important features needed in the program. An important factor to consider when creating the CBI lesson is to maintain the learner's attention to the application. This can be performed by including hypertext/hypermedia tools to to the CBI program, a good screen design, and continuous reinforcement (positive/negative feedback) througout the the program.
        Planning the interactive multimedia application. Planning the development of an effective interactive multimedia softwares at the the higher education sphere requires a careful following of specific developmental stages/steps. The planning process consist of six general stages or steps (Alessi & Trollip, 1991, pp. 244-273; Fisher, 1994, pp. 223-227; Linderstrom, 1994 pp. 90-129; NRI Schools, 1993, pp. 1-26; Price, 1991, pp. 61-82; Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 139-151), namely: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) logistics and production, 4) production of supporting material, 5) implementation, and 6) evaluation.

        Analysis. This fase of development consist of two specific steps: 1) the goals analysis, and 2) the need analysis.

        1) THE GOALS ANALYSIS. It is essential that the professor is capable to determine the
            purpose or general idea of what he hope to accomplish from the multimedia project. In other
            words, the professor should analyze and determine the overall goals for the interactive
            multimedia CBI proyect/lesson. Each lesson that comprises the CBI program must include
            particular goals. Goals are general/broad statements. The goal of the interactive CBI lesson
            involves what the student must know or be capable to perform after finishing the CBI lesson.
            Establishing the lesson goal implies the assesment of the specific characteristics and
            educational needs of the students. A good interactive multimedia CBI application should
            meet the needs of the students and curriculum. Therefore, the multimedia CBI project must
            be well-integrated into the academic curriculum of the college or university. Once the general
            purpose/goal of the multimedia project had been established, the professor must now
            determine the best approach required to acomplish such purpose. This can be answered by
            the results of the need analysis. Furthermore, the developer (i.e., the professor) should
            determine the content, and guidelines to be used. The profesor must set realistic limits of his
            potential application according to the available resources (particularly funding support
            resources) and time.

        2) THE NEED ANALYSIS. It is vital to the establish/assess interest and instructional needs
            the students (the target audience). This can be carry out by gathering information through
            brainstorming (generating ideas, solving problem and/or collecting data), observations (direct
            observation of the group of students involved during specific working class tasks), surveys
            (using questionaires), interview of experts or other faculty members related to the matter you
            teach, and literature review. According to Allessi and Trollip (1991), the need analysis of the
            intended students can be performed by determining the characteristics (such as, age and
            revelant skills), present competencies, limitations, and familiarization with the subject matter
            included in the CBI lesson of these students. After establishing the goals and objectives of
            the project, the professor must determine the best approach to meet these goals. During the
            need analysis, the professor should analyze the audience (students), determine the content
            and define the delivery system.

                a) Analyzing the audience (audience analysis). After the professor had established his
                    general goals, the next step is to identify any characteristics, attitudes, preferences, or
                    expectations of the students. This will help develop the design of the CBI application,
                    which is part of the process of defining the target audience. The professsor should
                    know their students, their level ofknowlege of the subject matter, expected academic
                    skills, and other characteristics. Defining detailed characteristic of your target students
                    should include the following considerations: demographics (statistical characteristics of
                    your students, such as age, gender, level of knowledge of the subject matter) attitudes
                    (opinions and outlooks shared among the students) preferences (such as, special
                    interests, and dislikes), experiences (such as knowlege level of the subject and
                    computer experience), expectations (will the students expect that the CBI program
                    should provide entertainment as well as an learning experience of the subject/lesson?).

                b) Defining the content (content analysis). Once the professor have an complete
                    perspective of the particular needs of the intended students, its time to determine more
                    specifically what should be included in the subject matter of the propossed CBI lesson.
                    From the goals, and need analysis, the content and concept will be developed. The
                    content analysis will determine more specifically the subject/topic to be covered of
                    your interactive multimedia CBI application or digital presentation lecture. The content
                    of the multimedia presentation or CBI application defines specific information required
                    to communicate the message (such as, facts, figures, and other data). The content
                    analysis may consist of deciding on a storyline, researching and organizingreferences
                    information, or outlining the rules of the game. The concept establish the manner in
                    which the professor is going to present the content, so that the pre-established goals
                    can be attained. The developer/professor should determine the limits/scope of the
                    project. Such process will aid in the establishment of the type of application required
                    for the multimedia project. Take time to determine the cost of the production based on
                    the CBI lesson scope. Establish the media resources needed. The most important part
                    of the content analysis is the base knowlege of the subject matter (rules, definitions,
                    concepts, and physical skills/task). In order to develop the content of an educational
                    application, the professor must first create instructional/learning objectives. Based on
                    these objectives, the professor will be capable to create a general outline of the
                    required topics to covered within the content of the CBI lesson. It is recommended to
                    estabish specific intructional/learning objectives for both the end of a lesson (general or
                    terminal objectives) and intermediate points during the lesson (intermediate, specific or
                    enabling objectives) (Allesi & Trollip, 1991; Price, 1991). One of the most important
                    aspects to be considered during the content analysis is to adopt an systematic
                    methodology todetermine the topics, content, and approaches used to develop the CAI
                    application. For instance, the topics that should be included in the content of the CBI
                    lesson can be established by means of several methods, such as brainstorming (to
                    generate creative ideas), a preliminary research to gather information necesarry to
                    create the CBI program, and other tools. Once the professor had collected and
                    evaluated the information for the lesson, the following step is to organize of it.

                c) Determining the delivery system. After the completion of the above stages, the
                    professor should analyze the delivery system, so that it he could determined the tools
                    needed. The delivery system refers to multimedia computer-based player that the
                    intended students will employ to view andinteract with the CBI lesson (Fisher, 1994, p.
                    9.). The When establishing the delivery system, the professor should consider the
                    following factors: (1) physical environment (of the application), (2) the functional
                    requirements, (3) the delivery media, (4) hardware needs, and (5) types application
                    softwares required to develop the proposed CBI lesson.

        The first step is to analyze the factors affecting the application's environment. Normally the professors can develop their CBI programs for the campus computer center or for the classroom presentation lectures. In such places, the professor must take in consideration those physical surroundings factors that can negatively affect the student learning process. Such physical entourages factors can be accessiblity, distraction/noise, light, and temperature. All these factores will eventually determine the way the professor is going to design the application.
        The CBI application developmental process will also be affected by certain functional features to be considered, such as, types of media to be used (e.g., sound, video, graphics, etc.), degree of complexity of the CBI application, special features required, types of hypertext/hypermedia tools to be incorporated, audio and video requirements, and so forth. The above information gathered must now be reviewed to determine the hardware and software requirements of the proposed CBI lesson.
        Now is time to determine the way the professor is going to deliver his multimedia CBI application to is target students. For small applications, the professor may deliver his multimedia project on a floppy disk. Athother option is to compress the application onto floppy disk for installation on a hard drive. For a larger multimedia project, the professor will require a high-capacity delivery medium such as CD-ROM or laserdisc. There is currently a great deal of interest at many educational settings for the development of multimedia interactive Compact Disks (CD). CBI delivery in the form of interactive multimedia training applications can be more effective if its information can be digitally stored in a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM can store up to 650 megabytes (MB) of data, including multimedia files (e.g., motion video, animation, and sound/music).
        The available hardware that the university possess should be considered when deciding how to the deliver the multimedia application to your students. The Three types of hardware used for multimedia are the computer, peripherals, and add-on-boards. The multimedia computer setup requires a fast Central Processing Unit (CPU), such as an Pentium 90 or higher, a minimum of 16MB Random Access Memory (RAM) upgradable to 32MB or more. It is recommended a full tower computer case, builded with a PCI-motherbord system coupled with PCI slots (buses). The CBI lesson requiere basic/important peripherals. Peripherals are devices (such as, monitors, disk drives, printers, modems, and joysticks) that are connected to a computer but are physical separated. The computer monitor should have a minimum of 1024x768 resolution. At least a 64-bit PCI graphic card with 2MB (better with 4MB) of Video RAM (VRAM) and a 15-inch (better with a 17-inch or higher) monitor is required in order to run 24-bit 800x600 motion video and graphics without disconcerting color palette fluctuations. Multimedia performance is greatly enhanced with the use of a quad or six speed CD-ROM drive. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) host adapters cards are recommeded, since it can chain up to seven drives off of a single adapter (making available more peripheral slots for other cards, such as an internal modem, and it provides less conflicts. SCSI host adapters with internal SCSI ports can control a hard disk, with a higher disk speed, as compared with IDE drives. SCSI is most useful when you need to have a variety of different devices active or available simultaneously without conflict. It is suggested a minimum of 1 gigabyte (GB) of hard disk (equivalent to 1,000 megabytes). In addition, removable external or internal storage is strongly recommended, particularly when capturing video clip files. Recently a variety of new relatively low cost removable storage had been launched to the market. Two affordable drives have currently a high demand by their user, these are the the 100 MB Zip drive from Iomega and the 135 MB EZ 135 drive from SyQuest. On the other hand, for multimedia delivery system I recommend a much higher storage capacity. The Iomega corporation have available two fast and relative cheep magneto-optical (MO) drives, namely the Jaz. Meanwhile, Pinnacle micro this year (1996) have available a new high storage capacity drive, the Apex 4.6 Optical Hard Drive, which uses a rewritable MOdisk. Panasonic distribute a removable storage that integrates a CD-ROM Drive, its called the PD/CD-ROM Drives. The Panasonic PD/CD-ROM Drives includes a kit that is composed of a SCSI-2 cable, Corel drivers and one PD cardridge. Another alternate data storage is the use of a CD-Recordable (CD-R) drive system. A CD-R drive can reduce bureau cost to a minimum, and speed up your production process. The final "gold master" can be sent to a duplicator. Scanners can be used capture still images from magazines, books, and so forth. Video cameras, VCRs, or videodisc are sources of video input, so that the professor can capture motion or still video. Add-on boards (expansion boards or cards) are units which plug into the computer and either control some essential funtion or provide a special feature. Typical expansion boards add memory, disk-drive controllers, video support, parallel and serial ports, and internal modems. If full motion video is required for multimedia, we recommed the use of a frame grabber (video capture board). Video capture cards can be used for digitizing analog video souces into AVI (Audio Video Interleave) file format. For better results, use MPEG or M-JPEG capture and editing systems. The most used video capture card is the Intel's Digital Interactive (DVI). This board is connected into the computer's bus and allows for digitizing, compression, storage, and playback of full-motion video. For sound, an audio capture and playback board is required. The sound system represent an important device for your multimedia computer delivery system. It is very important to choose a sound card that is compatible with your CD-ROM drive. Sound cards are also sold in a bundle with the CD-ROM drive. This will assure that both of these multimedia devices work harmoniously.
        In addition, the professor must select the software to develop the application as well to deliver it. The operating system must be defined (DOS or WINDOWS). Any specific drivers required to run the application must be determined. A driver is a program that controls or regulates another device (e.g., a mouse or printer). Media drivers enables a computer to work with media divices, such as CD-ROM, sound card, video capture board, and so forth. At this point the professor must decide if he is going to use a programming language such as Pascal or C, or an authoring system such as Multimedia Toolbook, Authorware, Director 4, HSC Interactive, and others. These authoring systems are softwares tools designed specially for the developmenmt of interactive CBI multimedia projects. Faculty members may better benefit of these programs, particularly if they lack of programming skills. The selection of the authoring system must be carry out early in the development process. The mayority of the authoring systems allows lay out screen elements (backgrounds, graphics, and text), the creation of simple animations, special effects, and on-screen interactions. Some authoring systems permit to define variables for collecting students input information, and interface the interactive multimedia application with peripherals (e.g., CD-ROM, videodisc players). Many authoring tools are capable to interface with programming languages. Before selecting an authoring software, spend some time understanding how the different types of available authoring tools works. The professor must look for the following features that can provide the authoring tool: 1) help tools, 2) hypertext tools (used when text is the primary type of content), 3) multimedia presentation tools, 4) computer-based training tools (include many interactive tasks), and 4) portable docummnet tools (display on-screen replicas of documents formatted for print).

        Design. Knowledge of the content and function of the potential application will aid in the development of the preliminary design. In this second fase, the professor should create flow-charts (diagrams describing the operations a computer performs; visual representation of decisions and events) and scripts, so that the final product can be seen. Storyboarding (preparing textual and pictorial displays, drafting the actual instructional messages) is important in this fase. Storyboards includes visual or graphical information, questions, reinforcement (feedback), guidelines/directions, prompts, graphics/pictures, animations/movies, and other key visual sketches that should be incorporated in the proposed multimadia CBI lesson and/or presentation.

        Logistics and Production. Logistics refers to the determination and management of the resources materials for instructional disign (text, storyboarding sheets, graphics arts, a word processor, persons with experience in instructional design, etc.), resource materials for delivery system (hardware, mannuals, experts in software development, etc.), and subject-matter resources (textbooks, reference books, original source materials, films, and other people knowledgeable in the area). The production of a multimedia CBI utilizing an on-line presentation delivery form and/or an interactive/random access CD-ROM application (employing an authoring program) requires the use of a hefty array of commercially available softwares. In addition of the authoring application, the professor may need to enhance his multimedia creation using animation/morphing programs, photo/image-editing softwares, paint and illustration (drawing) programs, digital video and audio software editors, and a bundle of royalty-free CD-ROM media clips (photoCD, bitmaps images, vector graphics cliparts, and video and sound clips), and other software utilities (format converters for graphics, audio, fonts and other file types, screen/window capture utilities, draw/trace programs, etc). There are excellent commercially available cliparts, background pictures/textures, animations, and video and sound clips available on CD-ROM (refer to appendix A). Some recent authoring packages and presentation softwares include audio and video editing tools. Use scanners to digitize pictures and/or slides. Production consist of those steps needed to culminate the multimedia project. During this stage of development, the professor will integrate the multimedia elements into the CBI application. This process is possible by means of authoring software tools which aids in an easy-non-programming manner the proposed interactive multimedia application. The final product should be tested and debugged.

        Production of Supporting Materials. Worksheets, diagrams, exams, photographs (PhotoCD or "scanned"), and assignment sheets.

        Implementation. The implementation stage may need the employment of a variety of multimedia delivery systems for different kind of multimedia CBI softwares.

        Evaluation. To asure a high quality production, the professor must constantly evaluate the multimedia proyect during every stage of the development process. It is imperative to make the required changes according to the results of this evaluation. Once the final product is distributed at the campus computer stations or delivered at the lecture presentation, the professor must assess the degree of achievement from the pre-established goals and objectives. This can be performed by collecting feedback and information from the intended students and members of the faculty of your department. The appropriate feedback must be received from the target students, from experts in the computer field (particularly those devoted to develop educational applications), and from specialist in content of the created CBI application. Assess how the multimedia CBI lesson works by observing the results of real students studying the CBI program and assessing how much they learn. Moreover, the professor can further evaluate the multimedia project by using it and having other people with design experience go through it. This stage is vital, since it will determine the the quality of future multimedia productions. The multimedia project must follow the curiculum standards, and should be employed only as an adjunct learning tool. Areas of evaluation that should be solicited from the students, CBI experts, and faculty members include the following (Price, 1991, pp. 110-116): 1) instructional adequacy (for reaching the objectives), 2) aesthetic adecuacy (appearance), 3) program adecuacy (determine if the application runs as originately planned/disigned), and 4) curriculum adecuacy (according to accepted standards and practices).

        CD-ROM Project Planning. Planning for the developmnet of an interactive CD includes the folowing initial steps: 1) defining the project and work, 2) Determining the resources and budget requirements, 3) establishing the project schedule. Before begining to work with the authoring tool and/or presentation software, the professor should try to resolve the design components for the CBI interactive delivery, namely: 1) User interface, 2) interactive branching, 3) determine the ways and means the user will be able to access the educational components of the CBI interactive program, and 4) at what time the multimedia elements will appear in the courseware (Protus, 1994).


        Higher education must keep up with the current changes in technology. The most recent revolutionary change is multimedia computing. It is the responsability of the colleges and universities to bring up this new technology to the faculty and classroom. The implementation of a multimedia project at colleges and and universities requires a great deal of planning and development of specific strategies. It is suggested to first evaluate the university faculty interests and needs concerning the development of computer-generated presentations for their classes and instructional interactive multimedia applications (Sammons, 1994).

        The team approach. The success of a multimedia program at the higher education level will greatly depend on the available human resources. Hardware and software will have meaningless function if the faculty does not know how to use it. A multimedia classroom cant't be developed if the administration of the university doesn't provides the required funding. Oblinger (1992) had suggested the creation of three vital groups for the multimedia project at the educational setting. These are:

  1. Faculty leader. This group should help spread the academic vision concerning the use of multimedia technology for the CBI projects and to provide a link between different faculty departments.
  2. Administrative leader. An important group that possess the vital function of providing the necessary funding for hardware, software, construction of multimedia classrooms, and training of the faculty.
  3. Computer support leader. This last group will provide the expertise required to set-up the needed hardware/software and infra-structure for training the faculty and for the building of the multimedia classroom. The computer support group will also provide technical advice to the professosr developing interactive multimedia CBI applications.
        Suggested steps for academic multimedia program development. At this point, it is indispensable to organize and appropriately set-up the univerity-based multimedia program. The succeeding list will address over this process (Oblinger, 1992).
  1. The priority for all multimedia CBI programs developed by the faculty is that they should follow sound pedagogical principles.
  2. Those novice professors engaged in new multimedia projects can look for help from other experienced faculty members that already had developed multimedia projects to their classes, as well from the computer support group. For instance, such experienced professors can offer recommendations and some guidance regarding what types o multimedia elements are required in their interactive CBI applications or of digital lecture presentation, and the needful hardware/software for the multimedia CBI lesson delivery.
  3. Software selection must meet the professor's needs and available resources. They should seek for advice from other faculty members who has worked with the development of CBI applications. It is critical that the professor understand the technical aspects of the authoring package. The computer support group can schedule workshops of these authoring softwares for those professors beggining in the authoring of multimedia CBI classes. Furthermore, the authoring software must match the time requirements and the proposed goals of the multimedia CBI lesson.
  4. It is mandatory that those professors working with authoring softwares identify the required development system for building multimedia interactive CBI lesson, and the delivery system used to display such application. The development system refers to the computer hardware, video/audio recording and editing equipment, as well as other programs necessary to run the authoring package, so that the interactive instructional lesson can be created (Fisher, 1994, p. 9). The delivery system establish the multimedia hardware and equipmnent to be employed during the presentation of the interactive CBI program.
  5. The university should periodically schedule training workshops for their teaching faculty members, as well to their administrative personnel. These training workshops must provide adequate guidance in the use of the authoring softwares. Moreover, the faculty training workshops should supply them with the necessary technical skills needed to produce appropriate multimedia programs for their classroom lecture presentations and for the production of CBI courseware.
        Determinants for the incorporation of a multimedia project at higher education level. The effectiveness of interactive multimedia CBI programs at the higher educational setting depends of various factors, such as the available financial resources/funding, the faculty initiate/leadership, staff support, administration support, technical support/services, and available time (Hazen, 1992; Lamb, 1992; Oblinger, 1992; Sammons, 1994). These factor are described below:
  1. Faculty training. An essential component of an successful multimedia program at the higher education level is the training and development time devoted to the faculty members. It is suggested to schedule formalized workshops regarding hardware and software, and in the trouble-shooting and repair of minor problems (Sammons, 1994). Sammons (1994), had recommended that these workshops should have a duration of one to two hours, with practical exercise, and the production of something that can be applicable to their classes and be taught by other faculty members.
  2. Computer-technical support services. It is evident the need of consultants that can help the faculty members to effectively develop multimedia CBI applications. It must be provided to the professors developing multimedia projects readily available technical support.
  3. Financial support. The need of funding for equipment and software is imperative to ensure an adecuate and efficient production of interactive multimedia CBI programs.
  4. Administration support. The administration of the university should give credit and support for the multimedia materials produced by the professors. Sammons (1994) recommends that these faculty members working on multimedia projects (for computer-based presentations lectures, or interactive CBI applications) should be rewarded in some way.
  5. The equipment must be readily available. The multimedia system must be easy to access.

  6. Time for the development of multimedia materials. The faculty members should be provided with ample time for the development of multimedia materials and to learn the technical aspects of hardware and software. Possibly, this can done by a reduction of the normal teaching load.
        Future expectations. According to Dr. Martin B. Solomon (1994), the integration of multimedia at higher education will be adequately developed if the following factors can be implemented:
    1. Instead of using expensive multimedia PC systems, the multimedia can be delivered
        by a network.

    2. The material developed by means of multimedia authoring softwares can be
        marketed for considerable number of target students.

    3. Availability of more commercially high quality multimedia CBI programs.

    Roadblocks for the widespread use of multimedia at the higher education setting. It is not an easy task the inclusion of an multimedia instructional courseware at the university ambiency, yet is not impossible. Nevertheless, there are some factors that hinders the prosperity of multimedia programs at higher education. Some of these are the following (Solomon, 1994):
  1. Culture of higher education. The faculty members of many colleges and universities perceive that they do not have enough time consigned to carry out effective changes in their lecture presentation classes. Moreover, another faculty sector feels that they don't have the necessary support from the administration for the promotion of innovative classroom activities. In addition, in a great number of higher educational institutions, the curret teaching load hinders the required time for the development of interactive multimedia aplications and classrooms presentations. For example, the normal teaching load is 15 or 18 contact hours per semester, consequently, less time will be available for the authoring of instructional multimedia lessons.
  2. Financial costs. The higher educational institutions looking out to put into work an instructional multimedia project for their faculty and administrators will need to make a significant investment. Good hardware and software requires a great deal of funding.
  3. Diversity among technical platforms and standards. The large number of different technical standards, such as the formats for graphics, video and full-motion video increases the cost of investment. Moreover, the connection of computer peripherals implies a costly, and unwiedly work. Likewise, this do not provide for remote access from the residency of the faculty members or even from their offices. Therefore, it is more practical a network with internet access capabilities by which the students can obtain an educational experience from his home and/or office. This new technology is present in many universities and is known as distance education.
  4. Multiple talents required. The production of well designed multimedia applications or presentatios demands too many different skills. A good instructional multimedia program requires skilled, trained technicians in the computer science field. The tipical university faculty possess an inadequate training regarding the developing of multimedia programs. It has been documented that 98% of the faculty members of an university lack of the necessary technical experience for the production of high-quality multimedia courseware (Solomon, 1994).
  5. Time required. It takes to much time to produce successful good-quality multimedia applications and presentations. Much more time is spent in planning and design of the multimedia elements. Programming and debugging adds to the burden. As a result, the mayority of the faculty that becomes involved into a multimedia project soon gives up due to the immense required time.
        Factors affecting faculty participation in computer-multimedia generated presentations of their classroom lectures. In general, it has been stated that college and university faculty members lags behind in the process of incorporating multimedia into their teaching (Sammons, 1994). Within an already instructional multimedia program at higher education setting, only about 2% to 3% of all the faculty members utilizes the multimedia hardware and software (Sammons, 1994). Why does this happens?. Some answers are addressed from an survey study performed at Wright State University for the faculty members of the College of Liberal Arts' Notebook project (Sammons, 1994).
  1. Lack of equipment. Faculty members feel that they lack of computer equipment. The multimedia equipment appears to be not readily available to the faculty.
  2. Lack of time. The university faculty perceive a lack of enough time to be devoted to the development of multimedia materials and for computer training.
  3. Lack of knowledge and skills. The higher education faculty member's perceptions is that they are uncertain of how to develop multimedia materials for their courses. In addition, the faculty don't really know the way these multimedia products can help attain the instructional goals of these courses, and what type of material are need to be incorporated into the computer-multimedia generated presentation lecture.


        The development of higher education software is often a difficult process. Not many educators and scholars know to write programs. High quality higher education courseware requires a multi-discipline team approach, in which high-tech programmers can serve as consultants conjointly with the faculty members of the university. The complexity of designing interactive multimedia CBI applications and digital screen show multimedia presentations will be deterrent for those faculty members working in the production of multimedia materials if assistance from experts in this field are not readily available. However, multimedia materials prepared using commercially available authoring software packages can indeed change this panorama. Current commercially available interactive multimedia authoring softwares now show great promise for developing effective interactive multimedia CBI applications and computer-based multimedia presentations.

        The authoring process. Authoring is the process of sequencing the CBI application or lecture presentation, laying out media elements on the screen, and entering the instructions for the required interactivity. A multimedia CBI author is the professor that plans and designs the interactive CBI courseware, and the related materials. The tool of the multimedia CBI author's trade is referred to as authoring software. Authoring is the heart of multimedia production, where all of the media elements come together and are assigned a place and time. Those faculty members planning to develop an educational authoring application should be sure to allow plenty of time for authoring, especially if they are new to the authoring software to be using.

        Types of multimedia authoring softwares. Multimedia authoring applications can be grouped into two categories: 1) sophisticated interactive multimedia authoring tools, and
2) multimedia capable computer-generated presentation graphics (online/screen or slide show programs), (Head, 1992; Lindstrom, 1994; Wolfgram, 1994, p. 24). In this section we will discuss first the multimedia authoring tools devoted for CBI buildup. Later, I will describe
the multimedia capable presentation graphics that can be employed for the classroom presentation lectures.

        Selecting an authoring application. Multimedia authoring software selection is the most important decision you will make for multimedia CBI lessons and/or lecture presentations. Before the professor and/or academic institution engage in the purchase of an authoring software, they should conduct an assessment of the commercially available authoring programs, in which a comparative analysis is performed from a standpoint of software capabilities and ability to support learning objectives (Wulfekuhle, 1994). Those factors to be considered during the evaluation process should be the followings: audio and visual capabilities, level of compatibilty to the existing hardware and software, compatibility and support with multimedia elements, ease of controlling multimedia elements, import capabilities of images/graphics, flexibility/compatibility of the import capabilities and data exchange from other programs (the degree of cross-platform support), degree of dificulty of the authoring program's command language, available testing and feedback options to students, capability to test the student's ability to apply concepts, hypertext-readiness and adaptability to associated multimedia elements, ability to load massive ammounts of information, support of programming variables and/or database elements (their ability to create sophisticated interactive presentations using embedded programming languages) and their hyperlinks capabilities, and required hardware for CBI development and delivery to students, production costs (Wulfekuhle, 1994).

        Windows-Based Sophistical Multimedia Authoring Softwares. These are characterized with the ability to create worldy-wise interactive CBI applications. They represent the high end of the authoring tools scale. For interactive multimedia CBI delivery, the use of an authoring tool will be of great help. Authoring tools permits the user to engage in a free-flowing exploration. Special features that contribute to authoring tools' power are things like mixing of various events in a single frame of the presentation, path-based animation, extensive text controls, environment controls like controlling when an image is loaded, and memory management. Some tools also offer accelaration, which is a process by which the presentation is compared frame by frame and only the differences between them are stored. This accelerated file can then be played back at a much greater rate of speed than the unaccelerated presentation. Some of the typical features of a interactive multimedia authoring tools are: 1) frame-by-frame metaphor (like a movie), 2) non-linear flow control,
3) multiple interactive controls, 4) complex transitions between frames (Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 26-27), 5) cross-platform support, and 6) code incorporation from external programming languages. Examples of the top multimedia authoring tools for the Windows environment include Asymetrix'
Multimedia Toolbook, Macromedia's Authorware professional, and Macromedia's, Director 4. The subsequent paragraphs describes these leading commercially available authoring packages. Remember to take into account the previous suggested approach to determine which best authoring tool meets the needs of your proposed multimedia CBI application.

        Multimedia Toolbook. Developed by Asymetrix, it's a well-suited software construction set for education and training. Its also commonly used for marketing demos and tutorials. Its scripting language (called OpenScript) is fairly simple and straigthfoward. Similar to HyperCard on the Macintosh, Multimedia Toolbook builds applications using a book metaphor. The Toolbook application that is created is organized in one or more books. The pages of the book is composed of different elements, such as, objects (buttons, fields, graphics, bitmaps) amd multimedia files (video clips, sound and animation. Multimedia Toolbook supports hypertext features.

        Authorware Professional. Authorware professional from Macromedia follows a lineal model and is built on an icon-based programing language. Its used to create interactive courseware, prototypes, simulations, and training applcations. With Authorware you can extend the system with external programing language. Its easy to create interactive simulations with movable objects, drag-and-drop, hyperlinks and path based animations. Authorware builds its applications using icons on a flowline where the position of the icon indicates the order of the event execution. The icons control all the standard multimedia elements like taking user input, controlling internal variables, and displaing graphics, animations, buttons, and video (also playing MPEG). This authoring tool supports playback of Director and Quiktime animation and video. Laserdisc players can be easily access. The program also supports hypertext and hypermedia, which allows to perform interactive branching, making links from text/objects to other media (video, graphics, sound) in the application. Authorware can create applications for either a PC or Macintosh platforms. The latest version of Authorware (3.0) also adds Open Data Connectivity (ODBC) support and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE 2.0)

        Macomedia Director. Available of Macintosh platform and for Window's operating system. The files created by Director are compatible with Windows, Macintosh and 3DO. This authoring software had been very popular in developing several award-winning commercial CDs. Director supports the basic multimedia elements needed for a the CBI intercative production, namely, video, sound (.WAV and MIDI) and hot spots. The scripting language that use Director is called Lingo. Based on a visual programming metaphor called a score (borrowed fron the musical score metaphore of MusicWorks, which displayed its notes in a bar graph manner), Director assign steps and sequences to objects and actors on the score. Director's movies contain a Cast (a colection of images, sounds, text, and lingo scripts) and a Score (shows positions of Cast members on a frame by frame basis). Lingo commands are used to create interactivity.

        Multimedia capable presentation graphics softwares. Most faculty see multimedia as a presentation tool for their classroom lectures. User-friendly presentation softwares are available at the commercial market. The first commercially availalable presentation graphics possessed limited multimedia features, and were designed using the "slide" metaphor. Consequently, these initial presentation softwares was also known as slide show presentation softwares. The initial slide show programs were based on the construction of presentation graphics. By definition, a traditionally presentation graphic software are those capable to create visually enhanced charts and graphics (text, xy charts, pie charts, maps, and pictorial images and drawings) to be used for classroom lectures by means of direct electronic display of these images using computer driven liquid cristal display (LCD) panel or video proyector. The following are typical slide show program features: 1) slide-by-slide metaphor (build a slide, wait, build a slide, wait...), 2) linear flow only, 3) singular interactive control (timing or interactive, not both), 4) simple (if any) animation features, and 5) simple transitions between slides (Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 24-25). With the evolution of the microcomputers, slide show programs incorporated other special effects features that allowed the presentor to build a slide, wait a specified amount of time or for a keypress (or, in some cases, mouse click), then go to the next slide. Normally, each slide can be composed of bullets, animations, icons, images, and background art. Different background templates for automatic creation of entire presentations are available. Current presentation graphics softwares had been improved with multimedia elements and hypermedia capabilities by which powerful interactive multimedia online screen show presentations can be delivered for classroom lectures and business presentations. They usually allow for the playing of music and sound effects and newer versions allows interfacing to video files. These innovative presentation softwares posees new powerful working tools, such as: 1) full featured outliner, 2) simple user interface, 3) powered animation and system controls, and 3) non-linear (branching) data paths (Wolfgram, 1994, p. 29). The most used window-based multimedia-capable presentation sofwares include Asymetrix Compel, Gold Disk Astound, Harvard Graphics, Microsoft Powerpoint, Adobe Persuation, and WordPerfect Presentations.

        Compel (Asymetrix). This program is oriented toward multimedia presentation developers. Compel its supplied with 154 slide templates groups. Each Compel's groups includes a different slide-style set, including placeholders for video, animation, sound and text, and charts. Within Compel you can create a variety of charts, including area, bar, column, high-low-close, line and pie charts. The effects menu allows the connection of objects to media links (sound, video, animation) and hyperlinks (branching another slide or other application). Slide transitions and bullets transitions are included in the effects menu. From Compel's presentation, the professor can print speakers notes and audience handouts. You can add sound in the form of .WAV files that are triggered by various actions from within the program.

        Astound 2.0 (Gold Disk, Inc). Following the steps of Compel, Astound's features provide multimedia-hypermedia tools for lecture presentations, integrating a slide sorter, slide outliner, and a editor display window. A peculiar tool of this program is his Timeline window. This function synchronize object animations. Astound incorporates extensive OLE integration. The developer can access digital video and animations from Astound's Place Video tool. A well-designed audio editing tool is included in this package. Version 2.0 incorporates Astound Studio, in which the developer can create and edit the audio, video, graphics, and animation files required for an multimedia presentation. This utility includes an Image Editor, and Actor Editor, Animation Editor, Video Editor, and Graphic Editor. Multimedia file types that can handle this program includes .WAV and MIDI files, graphics (.BMP, .PCX, .TIFF, .GIF, .CGM, and Kodak Photo CD images) and movie files (.AVI, QuikTime, AutoDesk or Gold Disk animation). Astound also includes path animation for objects. Import capabilities of the charting functions allows the access of datasets from Exel and Lotus 1-2-3 as well as delimited text. With OLE, this program allows links to spreadsheets and other Windows applications.

        Harvard Graphics 3.0 for Windows (SPC Software Publishing). Harvard Graphics for Windows includes a Video Player, Autodesk Animation Player and 15 animation clips. Animation Player-compatible files can be embeded as OLE objects in any slide. Video for Windows .AVI clip files can be set to run within a slide by setting the Video Player to auto-playback mode. Harvard Graphics ScreenShow control the program's slide transitions and audio elements. HyperShow function incorporates interactive control of ScreenShow and can also launch playback with the Video Player. Harvard F/X is a separate application included with the Harvard Graphics package for applying a spectrum of special effects to a presentation.

        PowerPoint 4.0 (Microsoft, Inc.). Is one of the most popular presentations programs. Text can be entered directly into template slides or in outline form. The program's composition display include: Outline, Sorting, Show, Speaker's Notes and Slide Creation screens. Pre-designed color system are available, slide transitions effects, linkage to CD-quality sound (MIDI, waveform audio), and trigger digital video clips (AVI files) or animation files. PowerPoint uses OLE 2.0 to link and embed media objects from other applications. Windows Media Player can be used to play movies.

        Adobe Persuation 3.0 (Adobe Systems Corp.). Supports QuickTime Video or any other movie format that has a Windows 3.1-compatible MCI device driver. Starts in an outliner, where you select the graphic design layout for the entire presention from a collection of style templates. Under the slide's headings, you can select a bullet or text to type the subheadings. Persuasion's graphical tools provides 87 chart types. A strong set of drawing tools are available. Interactivity is limited to branching to other slides. Runtime player is available for Windows, DOS and Mac.

        Word Perfect Presentation 3.0 (Word Perfect, the Novell Applications Group). The process of creating a presentation is facilitated with the utility Show Expert and Coaches. The program allows eye-catching slide transitions. Presentations offer the creation of various types of graphis and charts, including area, bar, line, mixed, pie, radar, scatter, surface, table, bullets, data and organizational charts. Multimedia supports include sound (MIDI, and CD sound tracks, images (TWAIN support for scan images directly into the program). Presentation lets you generate speakers's notes to accompany the slides. This program employs OLE 2.0 to insert media clips into the presentations created. The file is linked by copying it to the clipboard and then pasting the file from the Edit menu.

        For effective multimedia presentations for your clasroom lectures, follow these general rules (Blaize, Steven, 1996, p. 46): 1) keep the presentation/message simple, clear, and stick to the point, 2) to emphasize the current topic of discussion, use sound or another special effect, 3) avoid endless slide transitions, 3) Rehearse your computer presentation. Before going to the classroom, you can show your presentation to some faculty members and get advice concerning those posible obstacles that impairs the delivery of your lecture topic and main meassage.

        Utility Software Tools Used the Enhance the the Multimedia Online Presentations and/or Interactive Authoring applications

        Animation softwares. Animator (Autodesk) is the first choice among the comercially available 2-D animations programs. Animator is used for 2-D animation, paint, and sound synchronization.

        Morphing softwares. Morphing is the process of changing one image into another over a time sequence.

        Paint/image processing packages. These softwares creates and/or alter images to
make backgrounds and graphics.

        Video and audio editing porgrams. The quality of the multimedia project will heavily depend on the type of video and sound you will incorporate. These programs should help improve quality of the captured video and/or sound.


        Softwares used. As a faculty member of the Physical Education Department at the Interamerican University, Metro Campus, I begun to mature some interactive multimedia proyects. My first experience was using presentation graphic softwares. Harvard Graphics for DOS was the begining. Later, with the improvements of Windows operation system, and the development of powerful multimedia capable Windows-based presentation softwares, I made a radical switch to the Windows version of Harvard Graphics. Its seems to me a better choice. With Harvard Graphics for Windows, I was able to produce a variety of standard graphics (pies, bars, x-y charts), as well as other types of presentations graphics (bullets, tables, organizational charts, title, drawing charts). In addition, with Harvard Graphics for Windows I developed custom made drawings utilizing his drawing tools. The Harvard for Windows drawing tools was also used to make annotations and other designs within the standard graphics created. Harvard Graphics for Windows are packed with a variety of filters for the import of images created in another graphic program (examples: CDR, PCD, WMF, TIFF, PCX, and others). Moreover, a collections of over 500 simple clip art drawings are provided by the symbols library of Harvard Graphics for Windows. Harvard Graphics also allows the import of raw data created from differente programs, such as, Lotus 1-2-3 and Exel spreadssheets, ASCII files and the Windows Clipboard. Harvard Graphics can organize the presentation in slides (or charts). All related charts (slides) are grouped into a "presentation", and stored together as a single file. These slides can later be organized into a "ScreenShow," using slide transitions special effects and sound. I begun using Harvard Graphics for Windows to produce 35mm slides (using a film recorder) and overhead transparencies (printing the slides in an color Hewlett Packard [HP] Deskjet). At present, I use Harvard Graphics for Windows to create "ScreenShows" exported to a runtime file, and using the Harvard Graphic Runtime Player to deliver my presentation. These Runtime files are displayed by a LCD panel proyector for my lecture classroom presentations.
        Time came when a new well-designed multimedia-capable presentation software was launched to the market. This was Compel version 1.0 for the Windows ambiency. Hands-on faculty training workshops of this new multimedia presentation software prepared me with the needed skills for the development of more sophisticated interactive multimedia presentations. Compel is a multimedia presentation software that organize visual aids or "slides", so that it can be delievred by means of a computer screen or with a slide or overhead projector. Similar to Harvard Graphics for Windows, the presentation is created by adding slides. The Compel slides represents one screen of information (text, graphics, charts, buttons for multimedia file links) of the presentation. A screen show delivers your production stored as a presentation file. Such presentation can be enhanced with the incorporation of multimedia files, such as video, animation, and sound effects. In addition, Transitional effects (as well as sound) can be added between slides and Compel animation. As in Harvard Graphics for Windows, the multimedia presentation can be reformated to the deliver method you desire, namely, 35mm slides, overhead transparencies, computer screen and/or proyector system (e.g., LCD panel). The slides created within Compel can be printed as handouts and speakers notes for the students. Compel also includes a Runtime player, so that the presentation can be distribuited as a stand-alone show. My current lecture presentations employs a combination of both multimeda-capable softwares (i.e., Harvard Graphics for Windows and Compel). I take advantage of the hyperlink tool of Compel to launch a Harvard Graphic ScreenShow runtime presentation file.
        My first experience with an authoring software tool was Mutimedia Toolbook. Multimedia Toolbook is a software construction set used to develop Window's applications. Toolbook is an object-oriented development environment that provides graphical drawing tools for creating objects and a full-featured object-oriented programing language called Open Script for programing object's behavior. Toolbook provides the following authoring elements: 1) hypernavigation, 2) tools for creating graphical screens without programing, 3) a programing language called Open Script, and 4) tools for editing and debugging applications. Toolbook can be used for: 1) information production (handbooks, scientific research results, references), 2) development of training packages, courseware and online presentations, 3) information collection (address book, records, catalog, and 4) creation of prototypes for applications. Toolbook is event-driven. Toolbook functions by means of events generated by users action (e.g., pointing and clicking with the mouse). Multimedia Toolbook also function by predefined objects with built-in behaviors. With Toolbook it could be created applications, such as: 1) hypermedia programs (e.g., encyclopedias), 2) interactive training applications (e.g., tutorials, kiosks), 3) database applications (e.g., mailing list, 4) games that use graphical elements (e.g., board games, card games, or games with animation). The term application refers to a computer program that performs specific task. The Toolbook application that is created is organized in one or more books, which are designed for a particular purpose. The multimedia version of Toolbook adds animation, sound and video to the book. Drawings, scanned images and color can also be incorporated in the book created in the authoring software. The book created in Toolbook is divided into pages, which represent the application's screens. The application book consist of pages and scripts. The scripts carry out the actions you want the the book to perform.
        With the above authoring multimedia softwares I begun building up my multimedia presentation lecture classes under the Department of Physical Education. The courses developed (and still under revision) are: Anatomy and Kinesiology, Health and the Individual, and Nutrition for Sport Trainning. This was not an easy tasks. Nevertheless, technical help was readily available through the Center for Instructional Development. Multimedia elements incorporated in my presentation included: 1) bitmaps images/pictures (digitized with Hewleet Packard (HP) ScanJet IIc scanner, captured screen areas with Hijaak Pro 3.0, and commercially clips, using PhotoCD and TIFF file formats), 2) vector graphics images (royalty-free clip arts, using Windows metafile format [WMF] files, and traced bitmaps exported from CorelDraw 5.0 into WMF formats [This process was necessary to import such WMF file into Harvard Graphic presentations]), 3) video clips (captured video clips using Intel Smart Video Recorder video capture board, commercially available video clips, using audio video interleaved [AVI] format), 4) animation (Autodesk flic [FLC, FLI] formats), 5) sound (commercially available music and special effects sounds employing waveform [WAV] file formats).
        This development process of my multimedia presentation lectures required other windows-based software products that supported and enhanced the quality of my presentations. These Windows packages utilized were:

        1. Image/photo and drawing editing softwares. Corel Photo-Paint 5.0 used to edit my scanned bitmap images. CorelTrace 5.0 for tracing scanned bitmaps into a vector graphic format (EPS format). CorelDraw 5.0 to edit, apply color, and export into WMF format the traced encapsulated postscript (EPS) format images. Hijaak Pro 3.0 to capture areas from Windows screen.

        2. Animation and morphing softwares. Autodesk Animator, and AutoDesk Animator Pro to create animations. PhotoMoph 2.0 for morphing images into FLC and AVI formats, ASYMETRIX 3D F/X to create 3D buttons, snapshots (bitmaps from a created scene) exportable to Compel and Multimedia Toolbook, and animations (saved in .AVI format) that can be embed in an Object Linking Embedding (OLE) container application.

        3. Video capture and editing softwares. Microsft Video for Windows (VFW) to capture, edit and save frame-grabded full-motion video clips from an video recorder (VCR) into AVI formats. VFW is a utility that capture still or motion video and records it on the hard disk.

        Hardware used. The development of my multimedia presentation utilized the multimedia-computer stations and peripherals (scanners, removable hard disk and video capture boards) connected in a network located at the Center for Instruction Development of the Interamerican University (Metro Campus). My personal home-based multimedia system was also used during my off-campus free time. The development system was composed of the following computer hardware and supporting multimedia equipment:

        1. Computer and peripherals. Microprocessor Intel 80486 DX with a processin speed of 33
            megahert (MHz). The random access memory (RAM) was 8 megabytes (MB). Video
            graphics card with a Super Video Graphics Adaptor (SVGA) resolution and 1 mb of RAM.
            Two hard disk drives that sum aprroximately 800 MB, IntelliPoint Microsoft mouse.
            Double-speed CD-ROM drive that supports KodakTM Photo CD format.

        2. Monitor. I used an high resolution SVGA monitor.

        3. Sound card. Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro (for ISA).

        4. Audio speakers. Employed to monitor quality of the sound clips incorporated in my

        5. Video Capture card. Initially I captured by videos with the Creative Labs Video Blaster
            card (model RT300). I had some problems with dropping frames during the capture.
            Looking for a better quality of captured frames, I switched to Intels Smart Video Recorder
            capture card.

        6. Scanner. Employed to capture full page images (still images) from magazines, books, and
            photos with a HP ScanJet IIc scanner.

        The multimedia delivery system employed during my lectures presentations in the electronic classroom included the following hardware and accesories:

        1. Computer system/peripherals. Microprocessor 80486 DX2 and 66 megahert (MHz)
            speed. 8 MB of RAM. Video graphics card with SVGA resolution. Internal removable
            SyQuest cartridge and Drive of 270 MB. Mouse. Double-speed CD-ROM drive.

        2. Monitor. High resolution SVGA monitor.

        3. Sound card. Sound Blaster compatible sound card (Media Vision Pro Audio Spectrum

        4. Audio speakers. Labtec CS-550. An external build-up classroom audio system when
            for microphone use.

        5. Audio amplifier for microphone and VCR use. Radio Shack, model MPA-45 35 WATT
            PA AMPLIFIER.

        6. Microphone system/controler. Radio Shack, High Performance Professional FM Wireless
            Microphone System.

        7. Video capture card. Creative Labs Video Blaster card (model RT300), with overlay

        8. Video recorder (VCR). Panasonic Omnivision VHS-VCR.

        9. Projection system. LCD panel, Próxima Ovation. Overhead projector, model 2900 buhl.


        The multimedia at higher education holds great promise for academic instruction. As we move into the twenty-first century, more higher educational institutions will be shifting toward the development of the appropriate multimedia-based electronic classrooms conjointly with more faculty training for the production of interactive multimedia CBI applications and computer-generated presentations for the lecture classrooms (includng multimedia presentations generated and displayed through microcomputers), which will would provide an enhancing learning environment.
        Multimedia has a healthy future. The multimedia revolution will continue his high-profile in the general business, and in education. Interactive multimedia should continue achieving success as a teaching tool. Multimedia will harvest new creative potential educational softwares developed by the faculty. More quality instructional media custom designed and integrated with the instructor's normal teaching technique will be developed.
        This technology will continue to grow, showing promise for the enhancement of the presentation lectures of the professors, as well as for an individulized self-study application that will aid the higher education learning process.
        More educational programs will be developed for Windows operating systems. Windows allows to produce better graphics, providing more detail and smoother animation than DOS. More powerful and effective multimedia capable presentation softwares will be developed.
        With adequate funding and faculty support, computer-based multimedia delivery systems could become the most common form of instructional technology on college campuses by the end of the decade. The future challeges will be the development of curriculum-supported interactive multimedia CBI applications that can be used as an adjunct learning tool for the faculty members at the higher education level.
        I believe that in a near future, a greater number of faculty departments at the university institutions will be involved in the creation of multimedia materials, and the development of appropriate technology classrooms, that is, new infrastucture development of multimedia electronic classrrooms. Consequently, more classrooms will be devoted to design and deliver educational multimedia programs. However, future use of effective electronic classrooms will depend of several factors, such as: ease of operation by the faculty, time needed to learn, availability to the professors, reliability of the system, and level of delivery power (Kalmbach, 1994).
        Better and more users of faculty members developing multimedia projects will depend on the time they have, the support that they will be given, and the the feasibilty of an easy-to-use hardware and softwares (Sammons, 1994).
        The success of instructional multimedia at higher education will depend on the future cost of hardware and software, the standardization of the multitude of peripherals that are used in developing multimedia products. Multimedia delivered inexpensible over a network is better, less cost (Solomon, 1994).
        The demands for a better total quality at the higher educational settings, particularly the teaching quality (or teaching excellence), will position these higher educational institutions to provide revelant instructional technologies to the university community. The challenge is to stay abreast with the rapidly changings of instructional multimedia, so that the university institutions can assure a high quality of education to their students, and get them ready for the expected technological changes of the incomming century. Moreover, These institutions should provide to the faculty members with the required resources to be competitive both in the classroom and in their research endeavours.
        Such evolving technology will continue to change in the hardware systems. Trends indicate increasingly better computer interfaces, decrease in the physical size of computer systems, better and higher capacity of digital data storage, both fixed, and removable. The trends in presentation graphics are increasingly processor speed, higher-resolution displays, and easier-to-use software with expandable clip art library and high-quality templates, still and motion images.
        Current trends indicate an exciting future for instructional multimedia at higher educational institutions. The emergene of the authoring multimedia development will continue. Trends indicate increasingly easy-to-use, human-computer interfaces, such as development of remote controls. A decrease in physical size will be evident, with larger permanent and removable storages capacities and faster acccess time.
        In brief, the exciting near-comming years will impose the higher educational institutions to integrate interactive multimedia CBI applications into the curriculum, so that it can be assured an enhacement of the higher education total quality, particularly the quality of the teaching-learning process. The learning through interactive CBI lessons will heavily depend of problem-solvig situations. Multimedia computing will play a more prominent role in the classroom. Learning will be more student-paced, with time for individualized instruction.




        In order to empower the multimedia and hypermedia capabilities of the proposed development of interactive multimedia CBI applications and/or computer-based multimedia lecture presentations it is necesssary to incorporate multimedia elements (text/font, images/graphics, full-motion video, animation, and sound). Actually, there are two ways to include these multimedia files to the instructional CBI lessons and presentations. One way is to develop custom-based multimedia elements utilizing special hardware/equipment and software, such as a scanner, and/or direct digitizing of photos and video by means of special digital cameras and camcorders, respectively (to produce images/photos), video capture board (to develop full-motion video clips), AutoDesk Animation softwares (for flic animations), and Sound Blaster compatible cards (for audio input and editing). The alternate form for incorporating multimedia files into our presentations and CBI lessons is use royalty-free commercially available media clips (bitmap photos/images, vector graphic cliparts, MIDI and WAV sound/music files, AVI video clip files, and animation FLC/FLI files). The following is a list of royalty-free resource materials of media clip files that are commercially available and that I had employed for my multimedia presentations and interactive applications:

Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - General

for Windows (CD-ROM) - 1995 "Really Big Edition"
File Formats: CMX (exportable) (CD-ROM) 1995
Corel Corporation File Formats: WMF, CGM
1600 Carling Ave. New Vision Technologies Inc.
Canada K1Z8R7 38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13
Telephone: Voice: (613) 728-3733 Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5
Fax: (613) 761-9176 Telephone: Voice: (613) 727-8184

Fax: (613) 727-8190 Customer Support: (613) 727-0884


CLICKART - The Instant Image Resource KEY Mega ClipArt 15,000TM

(3 CD-ROM) - 1995 (CD-ROM - 1995

File Formats: WMF File Formats: WMF

T/Maker Company SoftKey International Inc.

1390 Villa Street One Athenaeum Street

Mountain View, CA 94041 USA Cambridge, MA 02142 USA

Telephone: For Products: Telephone: Technical Support:

Voice: 800-9-TMAKER 1-770-428-0008

Fax: 800-986-2538


Voice: (415) 962-0195

Fax: (415) 962-0201

E-MAIL: clickart_inf@tmaker.com



(2 CD-ROM) - 1995 Vol. 1 (1993)

File Formats: WIN - BMP; MAC - PICT File Formats: WMF

Expert Software, Inc. 3G Graphics, Inc

800 Douglas Rd. 114 Second Ave. South, Suite 104

Coral Gables, FL 33134 Edmonds, WA 98020

Telephone: Voice: (305) 567-9996 Telephone: Voice: (206) 774-3518

Fax: (305) 443-0786 Fax : (206) 771-8975


(CD-ROM) - 1991 (CD-ROM) - 1994

File Formats: WMF, CGM File Formats: WMF

New Vision Technologies, Inc. PC PAINTBRUSH

38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13 SoftKey International Inc

Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5 One Athenaem Street

Cambridge, MA 02142 USA

Publisher's TASK FORCE - Volume 1 Telephone: Technical Support:

(CD-ROM) - 1994 (404) 428-0008

File Formats: WMF, CGM Customer Service:

New Vision Technologies, Inc. (800) 227-5609

38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13

Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5 KEY COLOR CLIP ARTTM

Telephone: Voice: (613) 727-8184 (CD-ROM) -

Fax: (613) 727-8190 File Formats: WIN/DOS - WMF, CGM, PCX Customer Support: (613) 727-0884 MAC - PCX, TIFF

Softkey International Inc

CLIPART GALLERY (CD-ROM) - 1994 One Athenaem Street

File Formats: WMF, BMP Cambridge, MA 02142 USA

Digital Systems Research, Inc.


5 Park Plaza, Suite 770 (CD ROM) - 1994

Irvine, CA 92714 File Formats: BMP, PCX

Telephone: Voice: (714) 553-6575 Cristal Vision Software

Fax: (714) 553-6585 2245 Camino Vida Roble, Suite 100

Carlsbad, California 92009

CorelDRAW - Corel ArtShow

Corel ArtShow Series 2-5 (1991-1994) PUBLISHER'S PARADISE V2.0

(4 CD-ROMS) Sample CD - 1995

File Formats: CDR (Corel Draw) File Formats: WMF. EPS, PCX, TIFF

An annual publication of Corel Corp. Media Graphics International

Corel Corporation 8175-A Sheridan Blvd #355

1600 carling Avenue Arvada, Colorado 80003

Ottawa, Ontario Telephone: (Voice): 427-8808

Canada K1Z 8R7

Telephones: Voice: (613) 728-8200 LINE ART SHOWCASE CLIP ART SERIES

Fax : (613) 728-2891 (1994), File Formats: CGM

DataCal Corporation

531 E. Elliot Rd.

Chandler, AZ 85225-1152 USA

Phone: Tech Support: (602) 545-8089

Fax: (602) 545-8090

Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Backgrounds



(CD-ROM) - 1993, Release B File Formats:

File Formats: WMF, CGM, WPG, TIF IBM - CGM, EPS, WMF, TIFF Media Graphics International MAC - EPS, TIFF, PICT, PNT

8175-A Sheridan Blvd #355 Alpha Media

Arvada, Colorado 80003 4501 Glencoe Avenue

Telephone: (303) 427-8808 Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6372

Telephone: Voice: (310) 577-0400

MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc Fax: (310) 577-0402

Series 07 - Backgrounds/Borders Order: 1-800-832-1000

File Formats: CGM

Master Clips, Inc. Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Food

IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. CLICART EXPRESS - Food & Beverages

5201 Ravenswood Road (CD-ROM) - 1995

Suite 111 File Formats: WMF

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 T/Maker Company

Telephone: (305) 983-7440 1390 Villa Street

Mountain View, CA 94041 USA

BORDERS & BACKGROUNDS Clip Art Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195

(CD-ROM) - 1994 Fax: (415) 962-0201

File Formats: WMF, EPS, CGM, PCX E-MAIL: clikart_inf@tmaker.com

Pro OneTM Software

a division of SOFSOURCE MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc

P.O. Box 16317 Series 21 - Food

Las Cruces, NM 88004 File Format: CGM

Telephone: Support Hotline: Master Clips, Ic.

1-505-523-6200 IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc

5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111

Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Medical Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004

MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc. Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Sports

Series 10 - Medical

File Formats: CGM CLIKART EXPRESS - Sports & Recreation

Master Clips, Inc. (CD-ROM) - 1995

IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. File Formats: WMF

5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111 T/Maker Company

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 1390 Villa Street

Telephone: (305) 983-7440 Mountain View, CA 94041 USA

Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195

SUPER ANATOMY 1 (CD-ROM) - 1994 Fax: (415) 962-0201

File Formats: WMF, CGM, EPS E-MAIL: clickart_inf@tmaker.com

TechPool Studios

1463 Warrensville Center Road

Cleveland, Ohio 44121-2676 USA

Telephone: 800 - Lifeart

(800) 543-3278

Outside US: (216) 291-1922

MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc PHOTO CD GALLERY #1

Series 04 - Sports (CD ROM) -1995

Series 13 - Leisure/Entertainment File Formats: BMP, TIF

File Format: CGM Expert Software, Inc.

Master Clips, Inc. 800 Douglas Rd.

IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. Coral Gables, FL 33134

5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111 Telephone: Voice: (305) 567-9996

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 Fax: (305) 443-0786

Telephone: (305) 983-7440

KEY Photo Gallery


Sports Edition - 1993 File Format: TIF

Compu Works SoftKey International Inc

The WizartWorks Group One Athenaem Street

3850 Annapolis Lane North, Sute 100 Cambridge, MA 02142 USA

Minneapolis, MN 55447-5443 USA Telephone: Technical Support:

Telephone: Customer Hotline: 1-770-428-0008

Voice: (612) 559-5301

Fax: (612) 559-5126 ALLEGRO NEW MEDIA

Scenic Photos

CLICKART Studio Series Graphic Textures

Sports & Recreation Graphic Photos

T/Maker Company File Formats: IBM/MAC - TIF

1390 Villa Street Allegro New Media

Mountain View, CA 94041 USA 387 Passaic Avenue

Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195 Fairfield, NJ 07004

Fax: (415) 962-0201 Telephone: Voice: (201) 808-1992

Bitmaps Graphics Cliparts Bitmaps Graphics CLIPARTS - Textures


Volumes 1-V (CD-ROM) - 1994

File Formats: TIFF File Format: TIF

Series One, Volumes 1-V WorldArt

HSC Software a unit of TigerDirect Inc.

6303 Carpintería Ave. 9100 S. Dadeland Blvd., Suite 1503

Telephones: Voice: (805) 566-6200 Miami, FL 33156

Fax: (805) 566-6385 Telephone: Technical Support:

(305) 445-6304


Food - Series 25000 (1993 Textures for Profesionals

Amateur Sports - Series 226000 File Formats: TGA, TIF

Recreational Sports - Series 206000 Visual Software, Inc

File Format: PCD 21731 Ventura Blvd., Suite 310

Corel Corporation Woodland Hills, CA 91364

1600 Carling Ave. Telephone: Voice: (818) 883-7900 Canada K1Z8R7 Fax: (818) 593-3737

Telephone: Voice: (613) 728-3733 Toll Free (US/Canada): (800) 669-7318 FAX: (613) 761-9176

Vector Graphic BITMAPS - Medical


General Anatomy I-II (1994) Nova Development Corporation

File Formats: IBM & MAC 23801 Calabasas Road, Suit 2005

William & Wilkins Calabasas, California 91302-1547

A Waverly Company Telephone: Customer Service:

428 E. Preston Street (818) 591-9600

Baltimore, MD 21202 Fax: (818) 591-8885


Toll Free: (800) 527 -5597 MusicBytesTM - 1991

Outside US:(419) 528-4532 ProsonusTM

Fax: (410) 528 - 4422 11126 Weddington

North Hollywood

Video Clips California 91601

Telephone: Voice: (818) 766-5221

SPORTS IN MOTION (1993) Fax: (818) 766-6098

File Format: AVI

Jasmine Multimedia Pub., Inc WIRED SOUND PRO CD

6746 Valjean Ave. Aristosoft

Van Nuys, CA 91406 7041 Koll Center Parkway, Ste. 160

Telephone: (800) 798-7535 Peasanton, CA 94566

Telephone: (800) 338-2629

MEDICAL VIDEOS (Not Royalty Free) (800) 426-8288

File Format: AVI Fax: (510) 426-6703

Century CD


Eugenio Garzon 3746 CD-ROM - Volume1 , 1993

Buenos Aires, Argentina Data Express Inc

Telephone: Voice: (404) 621-9210


Digital Video Samples - 1992

File Format: AVI

Microsoft Corporation

Sound Clips


Softkey Internationa

201 Broadway

Cambridge, MA, 02139-1901

100 of the World's Greatest

Sound EffectsTM - 1993

Interactive Publishing Corporation

Customer Service

300 Airport Executive Park

Spring Valley, NY 10977


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Revised: March 21 1996
Copyright © 1996 Edgar Lopategui
E-mail: elopateg@coqui.net

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